How Does Solar System Generate Electricity?
Solar radiation can be converted into direct electricity by solar cells (photovoltaic cells). In such cells, a small electrical voltage is produced when light shines between a metal and a semiconductor (such as silicon) or two different semiconductors. The power generated by a single photovoltaic cell is usually only two watts. However, like solar panel rows, by adding large numbers of individual cells together, hundreds or even thousands of kilowatts of electricity in a solar power plant or household row.
The energy efficiency of most photovoltaic cells of the present era is only 15 to 20 percent, and, since the intensity of solar radiation is low, large and expensive assemblies of such cells need to generate moderate amounts of power. When sunlight attacks the solar cell, electrons are released from a photoelectric effect. Two different semiconductors have a natural difference in electricity capacity (voltage), due to which electrons pass through the outer circuits, and deliver electricity to the load.
Electrical flow results from the features of semiconductors and runs perfectly by the light that hits the cell.
Small photovoltaic cells running on sunlight or artificial light have been found to be widely used in low-power applications—for example as power sources for calculators and clocks. Large units have been used in remote areas to provide water pumps and communication systems and electricity for weather and communication systems.
Homeowners and businesses can install classic crystal-line silicon panels and emerging technologies using thin-film solar cells, including building-integrated photovoltex, to replace or enhance conventional electricity supply.
Concentrated solar-powered plants employ people who concentrate, or concentrate, collect sunlight received from a vast area on a small black receiver, thus producing higher temperatures The intensity of light increases significantly.
Rows of carefully attached mirrors or lenses can concentrate sufficient sunlight to heat the target at a temperature of 2,000 ° C (3,600 ° F) or more. This heat can then be used to run the boiler, which in effect produces steam for the steam turbine electric generator power plant. For direct production of steam, a dynamic mirror can be arranged to focus a large amount of solar radiation on the blackened pipes through which the water is circulated and thus heated.
Solar energy is also used on small scale for purposes other than the above mentioned purposes. In some countries, for example, solar energy is used by vapors to produce salt from seawater. Similarly, solar-powered desalination units convert salt water into drinking water to generate solar energy, either directly or indirectly, drive the process of defecation. Can be changed. Technology has emerged from solar energy for clean and renewable hydrogen production through alternative energy.
Imitating the process of photosynthesis, artificial leaves are silicon-based devices that use solar energy to divide water into hydrogen and oxygen, leaving practically no pollution. More work is needed to improve the performance and cost-effectiveness of these equipment for industrial use. Public Utility, an enterprise that provides some classes of services to the public, including shared carrier transport(bows, airlines, railroad, motor freight carrier, pipelines,etc).
Telephone and telegraph; power, heat and light. and water, sanitation Social facilities for cleaning and similar services. In most countries, such businesses are government-owned and officially-operated, but in the United States, they are largely privately-owned and operated under nearby government regulation. The classic explanation for the need to organize public utilities is that enterprises in which the technology of production, transmission, and distribution almost inevitably result in complete or partial monopoly – that they are, in a sentence, natural monopoly Are.
The trend of monopoly derives from economies of scale in particular industries, cost of general capital of such enterprises, demand instability in service consumers, demand peaks, and additional potential required to meet other protections Reservations . It often happens that the existence of competition for parallel systems—local telephone or natural gas, for example, would be exceptionally expensive, useless, and painful. Given the trend of monopoly and the potential of monopoly pricing methods.
The public code applies to certain classes of business for more than a century. Practically, the purpose of the regulation is to ensure that the utility serves all people who apply and apply for its services and are able to pay for their services, that it functions safely and appropriately. Yes, that it works for all customers on equal terms, and that its rates are fair and reasonable. All states have regulatory commissions, and the federal government has several, including the Interstate Commerce Commission.
The Civil Aeronautics Board, the Federal Power Commission, the Federal Communications Commission, and the Securities and Exchange Commission.